The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, which caused the 2019 novel coronavirus disease, or Wuhan pneumonia) has become the global focus in a short period of time. The World Health Organization (WHO) pointed out that the new coronavirus may be related to horseshoe bats. This is because the special immune system of bats makes it easy for them to coexist with viruses for a long time: bats will not become sick and die due to infection, and viruses will not be annihilated by the bat immune system, and they can also "train soldiers" in bats.
When the virus invades the human body, the immune system will recognize these invaders, and then initiate various reactions to kill them. The common inflammatory response is one of the defense mechanisms of the immune system, but strong effects may also harm the human body and even kill them. When a bat is infected with a virus, the immune company banner design system responds faster than other mammals; the infected cells secrete "interferon alpha", which acts like an alarm to quickly notify neighboring cells to activate defense mechanisms to prevent virus damage and stop the virus copy. What makes bats unique is that their immune system has another ability to control the inflammatory response and prevent it from overreacting and getting sick. This ability may be the result of adaptive evolution in bats' long-distance and fast-flying lifestyle, with the aim of effectively eliminating stress-induced oxidative damage. To further explore the reasons, bats do have some mediators involved in the inflammatory response, and their activity is lower than that of other mammals.
Bats have a high metabolic rate but can live up to 40 years, much longer than rodents of similar size, which may also be related to the special ability of bats to suppress inflammation. That is to say, the immune system of bats provides an environment in which to live in peace with viruses, and viruses that have not been annihilated can coexist and evolve with bats. Under the "training" of the immune system of bats, the pathogenicity also increases. This terrifying balance between the host and the virus is good for both, after all, if the host dies, it is difficult for the virus to survive and reproduce alone.